Volume 11, Issue 2, page 6

sarily in any more danger from undesirable fused with verbally-induced hypnosis, which
suggestion during hypnosis than he is while can, by suggestion, simulate all of their phetalking to a friend, watching television, go- nomena or none of it. Perhaps some of these
ing to church, or being psychoanalyzed. In states can be converted into regular hypnosis
fact, he may be in much less danger, since he by the introduction of suggestion.
ordinarily devotes much more time to these The word "hypnosis" has been used to delatter activities and they generally are less scribe a variety of completely independent and
carefully supervised to avoid adverse sugges- different states. Some of these states may
tions. Suggestion, then, also plays a much somewhat superficially resemble verbally-suggreater role in all forms of therapy than gen- gested hypnosis, in the popular conception of
erally suspected, and there is not the great its appearance, and these have not only been
difference in the "insight" and authoritarian confused with it but with each other. However,
forms of psychotherapy as commonly believed, verbally-suggested hypnosis will not necessaror claimed. ily assume the characteristics of any of these
The verbally suggested hypnotic state is, other states unless they are specifically sugthen, a formal situation in which the subject gested, or unless the subject assumes that
is given suggestions, and, if successful, he such a condition is expected of him, then acts
arbitrarily accepts, or assumes: (1) the sug- it out. At times, perhaps inadvertently and
gested characteristics, roles, or activities, unknowingly, elements of these other states
or (2) those things he feels are expected of may enter into the suggested-hypnotic state,
him, or (3) those things he feels a hypnotized and into each other, complicating and confusing
subject should have. Consequently, none of the the results and the analysis and understanding
traditional manifestations of hypnosis, in- of them. Conversely, suggestion, verbal or
cluding the progressively deeper stages, or non-verbal, can intrude or impinge on the ineven a trance-like state, necessarily appear, duction of any of the other states, influencing
and, as a matter of fact, often do not. The so- their outcome; and to further complicate matcalled depth-of-trance stages are misunder- ters, due to previous conditioning or unknown
standings of the facts and are completely de- causes, a few subjects may enter one of the
pendent on the subject's native degree of sug- other states than that intended. An example
gestibility, and, consequently, his ability to would be that of a subject using eye fixation
carry out more or less complicated or difficult might enter the relaxed somnolent state rather
commands. The number of suggestions, and the than the cataleptic fixation state, etc.
length of time they are given, has nothing dir- Without disparaging the current popularity
ectly to do with this ability. The so-called of suggested hypnosis, it would seem some of
deepest stages can be suggested and assumed the other states are worthy of investigation
instantly, if the subject is that suggestible, for therapeutic and other possibilities. The
and never will be, if he is not. Being a re- popular assumption that many, or any, of these
sult only of suggestion, these conditions in- other states are really only the result of imdicate only the degree of suggestibility and plied, non-verbal suggestion, is at least
nothing more, and do not increase the individ- questionable, and perhaps completely unwarual's ability to accept or carry out suggestion, ranted. Many animals can be induced into some
Altho suggestion cannot increase suggesti- of them and they are hardly suggestible in the
bility, there are other methods or conditions ordinary meaning of the term. Verbally-sugthat can, perhaps, do so to a degree. Among gested hypnosis is generally barren of a n y
these states is the somnolent, hypnoidal, or psychic manifestations, and those who have
hypnagogic state, which is that relaxed, attempted to use it for those purposes have
drowsy state between normal sleeping and wak- usually been disappointed. However, it is pering. It is probably closely related to the haps significant that much of the psychic and
dream state, to day dreaming, reverie, and other phenomena reported in the past were the
even sleep walking. Then there is the state of results of some of the other states mentioned,
fascination or (Braidian) fixation, where the and not, often, of verbally-induced hypnosis.
eyes or attention are strongly fixed or con- The reason a person can no more be induced
centrated on an object or subject. This usually to commit an immoral act during hypnosis than
is not a relaxed state like the preceding, but during his normal waking state is simple: he
a cataleptic state, and the person (or animal) is no more suggestible at one time than the
in it seems to be immobilized or frozen in a other.
fixed position. A similar state, in appear- The mystery and the danger, then, if any,
anne at least, is that state which is brought reside in that innate and universal quality of
about by great fear, shock, or being over- suggestibility, and not in hypnosis, which, in
whelmed by something or someone. This, too, is reality, has no separate existence, being
a frozen, cataleptic state, and there is also merely a specific usage of it, and differing
a general anaethesia. This is, perhaps, a be- only in kind and not in degree from its more
nevolence on the part of nature for those per- commonplace but usually unrecognized applicasons or animals in a helpless, insufferable tions.

Yet another state is that produced by pro- NOT-SO-PROUD GRANDPARENT
longed monotonous sensations. It resembles -- I created a thought, but turned away
but may or may not be -- the same as the somno- Ashamed to claim it to this very day. nG
lent state. Then there is that most dangerous p4
manifestation of man' s gregarious instinct When mirrored in others I point it out
where the individual will and reason are re- But that I created it, I now doubt..
linquished to that of the group, to mass hys- Yet, in my field of soil and earth,
teria, or to a "leader". There are yet still
other ill defined and perhaps controversial To a growing family it is giving birth.
states, such as those brought about by mental The little thought, originally errant, m
and sense confusion, subliminal conditioning, Has clearly to all become a-Parent. .~
the cutting off of external sensations, drugs, ALBERTA ELLIOTT
electroshock, pain, emotion, over tiredness,
hysteria, zealousness, .mesmeric passes and
animal magnetism, and the yogic and spiritual- DEFINITION -- Religion is insurance in this
istic trances, etc., all of which may, to a life against fire in the next.
degree. increase suggestibility, and be con- -- Jacob Alsel, Milwaukee, Wis. 6